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Author(s): Dharani Dhar Burra and Sriganesh Lokanathan


Big data sources provide a significant opportunity for governments and development stakeholders to sense and identify in near real time, economic impacts of shocks on populations at high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this study, we assess the potential of transaction and location based measures obtained from automatic teller machine (ATM) terminals, belonging to a major private sector bank in Indonesia, to sense in near real time, the impacts of shocks across income groups. For each customer and separately for years 2014 and 2015, we model the relationship between aggregate measures of cash withdrawals for each year, total inter-terminal distance traversed by the customer for the specific year and reported customer income group. Results reveal that the model was able to predict the corresponding income groups with 80% accuracy, with high precision and recall values in comparison to the baseline model, across both the years. Shapley values suggest that the total inter-terminal distance traversed by a customer in each year differed significantly between customer income groups. Kruskal-Wallis test further showed that customers in the lower-middle class income group, have significantly high median values of inter-terminal distances traversed (7.21 Kms for 2014 and 2015) in comparison to high (2.55 Kms and 0.66 Kms for years 2014 and 2015), and low (6.47 Kms for 2014 and 2015) income groups. Although no major shocks were noted in 2014 and 2015, our results show that lower-middle class income group customers, exhibit relatively high mobility in comparison to customers in low and high income groups. Additional work is needed to leverage the sensing capabilities of this data to provide insights on, who, where and by how much is the population impacted by a shock to facilitate targeted responses.